October Caddis

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Giant caddis are extremely enticing to large trout

This large steelhead was caught with a Bead Head October Caddis pupa fly.

The Pacific Northwest has some spectacular giant caddis hatches. Most of these hatches are in the fall, but some cold spring creeks have hatches through much of the winter and into the spring as well. There are a number of different subspecies in what is commonly called October Caddis, Fall Caddis or Giant Caddis. Most belong to the family Dicosmoecus. They range from California to Alaska. The fat bodies of winged adults are in colors in a range from light tan to yellow to bright orange to burnt orange. Wings are usually gray but there are also brown tones.

In some ways the giant caddis hatches are to fall trout fishing, what the salmonfly hatch is to spring. They are potential large packets of protein. But October caddis differ from salmonflies in several important ways because caddis have different lifestyles than stoneflies. Whereas salmonflies get active in the morning after the sun hits the bushes where they have spent the night, October caddis find a place in the deep shade and hide there all day. Salmonfly mating is done during the day; they are clumsy crawlers and fliers and they wind up in the water a lot. October caddis are only on the water during egg laying or the hatch, and both activities occur most heavily during extreme low light.

 An under water shot of cased caddis larvae.

The larvae of these giant caddis build tube-like cases. During the winter months when the larvae are tiny, these cases are made from vegetable matter attached to a foundation of silk. As the larvae grow in size through the spring months, they abruptly switch to cases made from small gravel. You can observe these larvae crawling around on the stream bed dragging their cases with them as they forage for algae and decaying plant and animal matter.

During the summer months of April, May, June and July, Dicosmoecus larvae are important trout foods. Daily behavioral drift cycles occur in the early afternoon, usually peaking about 4:00 p.m. They are one of the few families of caddis that leave their cases before behavioral drift cycles which makes them extremely enticing to large trout. In August, these larvae seal themselves in their cases and by September they are ready to emerge as adults.

Try a pupa pattern

During heavy cloud cover days emergence occurs from late afternoon until dark. The pupae usually swim and crawl to shallow water, but some emerge mid-river. Many actually crawl from the water to hatch on rocks along the shore. Even when adults are not active, you can tell if October caddis have been hatching by observing their shucks on stream margin rocks. During cloudless days fishing a pupa pattern is a low light operation. After the gloom of early morning or before twilight of late evening, fishing an October caddis pupa is largely a waste of time. In rivers that have summer steelhead runs, October caddis pupa patterns can be very effective for steelhead. Both weighted and unweighted versions have their place.

A pumpkin orange October Caddis pupa.

If prospecting with a dry October caddis pattern doesn't turn up any interest, try a pupa pattern. Pumpkin orange color is usually the best. Try fishing your pupa suspended from a dead drifted dry fly. This technique can be very productive late in the evening when both egg laying adults and hatching pupae are active. Steelhead as well as trout can be fooled by this trick.

Made in the shade

Egg laying occurs in the afternoon and evening. The big, fat, juicy females flop around on the water exuding their eggs. They are a prime attraction for fish of all sizes. Fishing a big, orange body dry fly can be productive any time of day if you fish in shady spots under overhanging trees. Shady spots with bubble curtains caused by fast water and big rocks are usually best for dry flies.

A resting October Caddis adult.

Some caddis are active during moderate temperature days caused by heavy cloud cover. Most of the big caddis rest in the shade of vegetation throughout hot days. These caddis are perfectly camouflaged to hide during the day and wait for evening flights.

 Mating flight of October Caddis.

Not surprisingly, nearly all of the October caddis activity happens during low-light hours, mostly during the evening. Orange body waking flies such as: Mercer's October Caddis Skater, POM Skater, October Caddis and Brett's Klamath Skater in the October caddis color can be deadly on both trout and steelhead. Riffle hitched wet flies, such and the: Twitcher Steelhead Waking Fly are often steelhead candy.

 Mating October Caddis.

Try these proven October Caddis patterns:

October Phat Ass

Orange Stimulator

Improved Sofa Pillow

Cul De Canard Salmon Fly Adult

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